Gensokyo was originally a desolate, haunted region of Japan ages ago. The youkai that lived there began to terrorize the surrounding lands, and thus powerful, heroic humans were sent to exorcise and exterminate them. The off and on battle between humans and youkai continued on until 1884 A.D., when Gensokyo was sealed off from this increasingly scientific and skeptical world with the creation of the Hakurei Border. There has been little contact between our societies ever since. Today, the only known gateway between Gensokyo and this world is the Hakurei Shrine, which stands in isolation along the border on distant mountains of the far east.Gensokyo is populated mainly by youkai, but a decent human and rabbit population lives there as well. Some of its inhabitants went there to hide, to escape, to find shelter when no one and nowhere else would accept them. Many of them just like the natural darkness.
Although passing through the Hakurei Border to the outside world is virtually impossible for anyone besides Yukari Yakumo, it is significantly easier for Gensokyo denizens to access domains of gods, demons, and dead souls which are not strictly part of Gensokyo itself. These include Higan, the Netherworld, Makai, the Celestial realm seen in Scarlet Weather Rhapsody, and the underground abandoned Hell where Subterranean Animism is set.Cage in Lunatic Runagate Chapter 4 reveals that the Youkai Mountain preserves the original appearance of Mount Yatsugatake before Sakuya-hime, the goddess of Mount Fuji, tore it down out of jealousy. In the outside world today, the remnants of the mountain can be seen as the Yatsugatake mountain range in Yatsugatake-Chūshin Kōgen Quasi-National Park between Nagano and Yamanashi Prefectures, providing an indication of where Gensokyo would be located in Japan. Lake Suwa (諏訪湖, Suwa-ko), which Suwako Moriya was named after, is located nearby.
- April - 卯月 uzuki, Deutzia Month
- May - 皐月 satsuki, Planting Month
- June - 水無月 minazuki, Month Of Water (Note: The kanji 無 usually means 'none', but here it's used in an archaic form to show possession)
- July - 文月 fuzuki, Book Month
- August - 葉月 hazuki, Leaf Month
- September - 長月 nagatsuki, Long-lasting Month
- October - 神無月 kannazuki, Godless Month
- November - 霜月 shimotsuki, Frost Month
- December - 師走 shiwasu, Priest-running Month
- January - 睦月 mutsuki, Affection Month
- February - 如月 or 衣更着 kisaragi, More Clothes Month
- March - 弥生 yayoi, Sprouting Month
- Chinese legend - Chang'e/Jouga drinks the elixir of immortality and flies to the moon
- Kojiki - the white rabbit of Inaba is attacked by alligators it tricks and is saved by Lord Daikoku (~3000 years ago)
- Japanese legend (BCE 300 or earlier) - the Great Suwa War
- hard to date due to the difficulty of determining the start of the Japanese Iron Age
- Before Taketori Monogatari - birth of Fujiwara no Mokou (to Fujiwara no Fuhito?)
- 672-707 A.D. - Taketori Monogatari, beginning of Imperishable Night backstory
- Kaguya and Eirin flee from the moon and establish Eientei
- Fujiwara no Fuhito, on whom Prince Kuramochi was modeled, lived from 659~720
- 712 A.D. - Hieda no Are compiles the Kojiki
- ~1200 years ago (~800 AD?) - Hieda no Aichi, first child of Miare, begins the Gensokyo Chronicles
- Compilation began around Aichi's 18th birthday
- a bit over ~1000 years ago - Yuyuko's father passes away beneath the Saigyou Ayakashi
- the historical figure Saigyou lived from 1118 to 3/23/1190 (2/16 old calendar), and entered the priesthood in 1140
- ~1000 years ago - Yuyuko dies, Saigyou Ayakashi sealed, Yuyuko given reign over Hakugyokurou
- "over 1000 years ago" - War for the Moon's Surface
- almost 1000 years ago - Aya Shameimaru settles in Gensokyo
- several hundred years after Taketori Monogatari - Tewi comes to Eientei
- 1430-1476 A.D. - Vlad "Dracula" Tepes' reign
- "over 500 years ago" - Youkai Expansion Project
- ~1503 A.D.- Remilia Scarlet's birth
- ~1508 A.D. - Flandre Scarlet's birth
- ~300 years ago - Youki Konpaku becomes Hakugyokurou's gardener
- ~100 years ago - period of the 8th Child of Miare, Hieda no Aya
- During this time, humans begin becoming powerful enough to seriously challenge youkai
- Akyuu was the first Child of Miare after the border's creation, so Aya probably died before 1885
- 1872-1885 A.D. - first official circulation of Japanese paper money (predates Hakurei Border)
- 0 (~1885 A.D.) - creation of the Great Hakurei Border
- last time dragons were seen in Gensokyo (Perfect Memento: Dragons)
- travel between Gensokyo and the human world becomes difficult
- 60-year cycle year
- 60 (1945 A.D.) - 60-year cycle year / conclusion of World War II
- the first time the Great Hakurei Border weakens
- 84 (1969 A.D., 20 July) - first Lunar expedition, Neil Armstrong plants a flag on the moon
- 84-?? - Lunar War
- Lunar capsules Apollo 11 through Apollo 17 land from 1969 to 1972
- Apollo 13 is damaged en route to the moon in 1970; only the Lunarians know the real cause
- ~35 years ago - Reisen arrives in Gensokyo
- night of a full moon
- after the Lunar War began, before the 100th year of Gensokyo, about 30 years ago in Bougetsusho
- 90-100 (1976-1986 A.D.) - Ghost Immigration Plan (Perfect Memento: Yuyuko Saigyouji)
- ~110 - Kourindou established
- ~113 - Youki Konpaku retires, Youmu becomes the new gardener
- 7/109 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Presenting the Ninth Are Maiden"
- before 1998 A.D. - Vampire Incident (Perfect Memento: Reimu Hakurei)
- Scarlet Devil Mansion appears in Gensokyo under auspices other than Remilia's
- Akyuu believes Remilia came to Gensokyo after this incident
10/1/114 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Is the Middle Prismriver Daughter Going Solo?"
5/4/115 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "In Search of a New Sound"
8/4/115 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Mysterious Luxury Goods arrive in Kourindou"
8/2/116 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Demon Lurks in Darkness, in Broad Daylight"
9/2/117 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "The Mysterious Truth about the Secret History Association"
Year 118 (2003)
Year 119 (2004)
4/1/119 - Perfect Cherry Blossom Extra/Phantasm Stage
5/1/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "In the Prolonged Winter, Ceremony to Ask for Spring"
5/3/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Mysterious Flower Petals Beneath the Cherry Trees"
5/3/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "First Radio Broadcast in Gensokyo a Failure"
5/3/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Fairy Mischief? Invisible Rainstorm is Heavy"
6/3/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Large Number of Straw Effigies Found In Forest Behind Shrine"
Rainy season - Curiosities of Lotus Asia old chapter 4
7/-/119 - Immaterial and Missing Power
7/4/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Out of Season, the Great Setsubun Festival at the Scarlet Devil Manor"
Summer - Curiosities of Lotus Asia old chapter 5
7/15/119 - Imperishable Night
8/3/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Strange Treasure Hunter Lopes Around the Night"
8/3/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Youkai Practices Animal Abuse"
8/4/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Mysterious Fire in the Bamboo Forest"
8/5/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Ghost Procession on a Midsummer Afternoon"
8/15/119 - Imperishable Night Extra Stage
9/2/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "The New Insects' News Service"
9/4/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Mysterious Patterns in Flower Field"
Autumn - Curiosities of Lotus Asia chapter 1 "Unrelated Mound of Higan Flowers"
10/2/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "The Field Where the Cats Gather"
12/1/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "In Modern Gensokyo, a New Dream Medicine"
Winter - Curiosities of Lotus Asia chapter 2 "Purple-transcending Light"
Winter - Curiosities of Lotus Asia doujinshi version
Winter - Curiosities of Lotus Asia chapter 3 "Imprisoned Light, Window of Snow"
1/4/119 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Daring Monetary Offering Fraud"
Year 120 (2005)
3/4/120 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Enormous Shooting Star Explodes in Mid-air"
Spring - Curiosities of Lotus Asia chapter 4 "Colorless Sakura""
Spring - Eastern and Little Nature Deity chapter 0
Spring - Phantasmagoria of Flower View
4/1/120 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Flower Viewing Continues at the Shrine"
4/1/120 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Patchouli's Pressed Flower Exhibition Opening Soon"
5/1/120 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Formula Discovered for Calculating Width of the Stygian River"
6/1/120 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Ice Fairy Eaten by Giant Toad"
Rainy season - Eastern and Little Nature Deity chapter 1
8/3/120 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "The Strange Reverse Rainbow in the Summer Noon"
Summer - Bohemian Archive in Japanese Red "Wind's Extra"
Summer - Curiosities of Lotus Asia chapter 5 "A Nameless Stone"
10/13/120 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Night Sparrow's New Promising Enterprise"
11/1/120 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Moon Capital Exhibition Now In Progress at Eientei"
11/2/120 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "Rabbit Mob Protests Shrive Festival"
Autumn - Curiosities of Lotus Asia chapter 6"Unworking Shikigami"
2/1/120 - (Bunbunmaru Newspaper) "The Midwinter Moon's Great Explosion"
Winter - Curiosities of Lotus Asia chapter 16 "Price of a Paper at Luoyang"
Winter - Curiosities of Lotus Asia chapter 17 "Moon and Kappa"
Winter - Curiosities of Lotus Asia chapter 18 "Dragon's Camera"
Year 121 (2006)
Gensokyo calendar dates are unknown for this year.
2/26/2007 - Curiosities of Lotus Asia chapter 22 "Moist Moon"
Year 122 (2007)
122 - 守矢神社到临幻想乡
2007年8月17日 - 东方风神录
夏季 - 东方绯想天
冬季 - 东方地灵殿